A number of sectors are known for their high energy demand. First among these is the power generation sector followed by industry (manufacturing, steelmaking and other industrial purposes), transportation and the residential/consumer sector. Exxon Mobil expects that, in 2030, all of these demand sectors will remain in their current, relative positions, with most growth in additional demand from power generation and transportation, shortly followed by industry and the residential or commercial sector.
The US and China are the two largest consumers of primary energy. US and Chinese households account for 4.5% and 4% of energy consumption respectively. In the US, transportation accounts for 5.4% and the commercial sector accounts for 3.5% of consumption. A report by McKinsey estimates that consumer goods account for 53% of global demand, the residential sector for 25%, road transportation for 16%, the commercial sector for 10% and air transportation for 2%. This does not add up to 100%, as consumer goods could apply to demand from some of the other categories. But this did not take into account demand from power generation and does not reflect Chevron’s findings, as Chevron grouped all modes of transportation together.
For the industrial, commercial and residential sectors, combustibles account for more energy use overall than electricity. Space heating, water heating and lighting are major users of energy in the residential and industrial sector and process heat for industry.